imports from china

Our contribution relies on nonlinear coefficient constraints to detect periods during which currencies were floated and synchronised against the renminbi. We link the corresponding estimated regimes to macroeconomic determinants that might explain the decision to more closely track the renminbi. We pay particular attention to the degree of renminbi globalisation as well as trade relationships, business cycle synchronisation, Chinese economic policy uncertainty, exchange market pressure on renminbi and export similarity with China. We reveal that the renminbi weight is higher than what is generally suggested in the literature but constantly adjusted within currency baskets. Furthermore, when Asian countries loosen their pegs against the US dollar, the correlation of their currencies with the renminbi tends to increase.

currency markets

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In percentage terms, the stock price increase led to a return from capital appreciation of 50%. The dividend income return is $1, equating to a return of 10% in line with the original dividend yield. The return from capital appreciation combined with the return from the dividend leads to atotal returnon the stock of $6 or 60%. This currency value is expressed by the euro/peso exchange rate. An exchange rate denominated x/y gives the value of y in terms of x. When an exchange rate denominated x/y rises, then y has appreciated in value in terms of x, while x has depreciated in terms of y.

In this section we identify and quantify the cumulative effect of giant discoveries on the real exchange rate and its tradable and non-tradable goods component. The current global economic slowdown led to a sharp reduction in U.S.-China trade in 2009; both U.S. exports to and imports from China fell sharply, though imports fell at a bigger rate. As a result, the U.S. trade deficit with China was down 14.8% over the previous year. In addition, because the Chinese government maintains tight controls on capital outflows, Chinese households are limited in terms of where they can invest their savings.

Who demands a countries currency?

President Obama stated in February 2010 that China’s undervalued currency puts U.S. firms at a “huge competitive disadvantage,” and he pledged to make addressing China’s currency policy a top priority. This could raise the level of anti-dumping duties imposed on imports. Some supporters of currency legislation aimed at China hope that the introduction of such bills will induce China to appreciate its currency more rapidly.

  • In other words, the undervalued currency could be considered to be a measure that is contingent upon export performance.
  • While adopting different empirical methodologies goes some way towards strengthening the robustness of exchange rate assessments, it should be recognized that such assessments are unavoidably subject to large margins of uncertainty.
  • The effect of currency appreciation and depreciation is felt prominently in international trade.
  • Fred Bergsten from the Peterson Institute for International Economics argued in 2010 that a market-based RMB would lower the annual U.S. current account deficit by $100 billion to $150 billion.
  • For example, an increase in demand for foreign products results in more imports, resulting in foreign currency investing, resulting in domestic currency depreciation.

To predict currency appreciation and depreciation, traders use the economic calendar. The calendar includes economic releases that determine the strengths and weaknesses of the economy. Thus, if a trader only knows that the GDP growth of the country whose currency he trades declined compared with the forecast, he can expect the fall of the domestic currency.

For example, one bill introduced in the 108th Congress by Senator Schumer (S. 1586) sought to impose additional duties of 27.5% on imported products unless China appreciated its currency to market levels. The House approved a currency bill (H.R. 2378) in the 111th Congress and the Senate passed one (S. 1619) in the 112th Congress, though neither became law. While economic theory predicts that quantitative easing would cause a country’s exchange rate to depreciate, it should be noted that it has been used in many countries following the financial crisis, including the United States. We can also use the information above to calculate the price of a U.S. good in the various currencies. We do this by simply multiplying the price of the U.S. good by the exchange rate for whichever country we are looking at. So for example, a $300 hotel room in the U.S. would cost 💷225 pounds in Britain.

Strong Exchange Rate Effects

However, bank interest rates are set by the central government, and oftentimes, the rates of return on savings deposits are below the rate of inflation (see Figure A-7). Chinese depositors faced negative real interest rates in 2004, 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011. As a result, many economists have called for economic restructuring among many of the world’s major economies, especially the United States and China. Fundamental restructuring of this sort would take time, and if not well coordinated, could deepen the global output gap in the short run. Analysis by the IMF suggests that currency appreciation alone by China would yield limited benefits to the global economy (including the U.S. economy) unless it was accompanied by greater Chinese consumption and an expansion of the services sector.


You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in oureditorial policy. Certain assets are given to appreciation, while other assets tend to depreciate over time. As a general rule, assets that have a finite useful life depreciate rather than appreciate. The appreciation rate is the rate at which an asset grows in value. Full BioCierra Murry is an expert in banking, credit cards, investing, loans, mortgages, and real estate.

Exchange rate undervaluation and economic growth: Díaz Alejandro ( revisited

If prices are not completely passed through to consumers, then consumer demand for Chinese imports will fall less than if they were, all else equal. The Treasury Department would be required to oppose increasing the voting shares or representation in any international financial institution if the country in question would benefit from that change. Because of these factors, some Members have argued that China should be cited by the Department of the Treasury as a country that manipulates its currency in order to gain an unfair trade advantage .

  • In international trade, depreciation makes imported products more expensive.
  • When a currency appreciates or strengthens , there are many effects on you and the economy.
  • A common misperception is that a strong currency is always what is best for a country.

They were checked for their ability to replicate the results presented in the paper. Finally, it is important to emphasise that approximately 25% of the 302 giant discoveries between 1970 and 2013 were made by nine countries in this sample leaving us with enough variation for identification. To explore the reallocation channel we focus on countries that were OECD members by 1973. Between 1970 and 2013, 302 giant discoveries were made in 56 countries. The average and median size of discoveries is 67% and 10% of GDP, respectively.

Difference between Currency Depreciation and Currency Appreciation

This is high because 1 USD gets you many MXN but 1 MXN does not get you very many USDs. This information is educational, and is not an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any security. This information is not a recommendation to buy, hold, or sell an investment or financial product, or take any action. This information is neither individualized nor a research report, and must not serve as the basis for any investment decision. All investments involve risk, including the possible loss of capital. Before making decisions with legal, tax, or accounting effects, you should consult appropriate professionals.


The effect of currency appreciation and depreciation is felt prominently in international trade. When a currency’s value changes, a country’s imports, and exports can be affected because trading may become either relatively cheaper or more expensive depending on the change in the value of the currency. To know if a currency appreciates or depreciates we need to know its value.

A final advantage worth noting is that it can allow citizens traveling outside of the country to get more value for their money as their currency will go further when exchanged for foreign currencies. A strong exchange rate is when the value of a currency is high relative to other currencies. This makes a country’s exports more expensive and its imports less expensive.

It’s important to note that the two cases actually have different axes when graphed with the supply and demand model. The first case, we’re looking at the quantity and price of euros, so the x-axis would say “quantity of euros” while the y-axis would say “dollar price of a euro”. If we look at the European Euro, we see that the exchange rate decreases from 1.10 to 1.05 from March to July. This means that the European Euro has become less expensive, or has depreciated in value. Role of international reserves in the form of foreign currencies -Maintaining an overvalued currency is difficult as foreign reserves may run out. This shifts the supply curve right, decreasing the exchange rate.

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On the other hand, if have a strong preference of American products, demand for dollar will increase, since you can only buy American products with dollars. This causes the demand for dollars to shift to the right, increasing the quantity and price of dollars. Now you’ll need 2 euros to trade in for one dollar, a change from 1 euro for 1 dollar. One day, a dollar could be strong, another day it could be weak. Like how the price of products in the market is determined by the equilibrium price, so is the price of a pound. But like regular good old supply and demand, we have factors that can shift the supply and demand curves to the right or to the left.

What’s an Example of an Appreciating Asset?

The solid lines show the cumulative impulse response Ωt∈ to a giant discovery, while the dashed and the dotted lines indicate 90% and 95% confidence intervals. The first chart depicts the cumulative response of the real exchange rate to a giant discovery. In the second and third charts we decompose the effect on the real exchange rate into the effect on the tradable and the non-tradable component, respectively. First of all, note that in the periods before the discoveries, indicated by the vertical line, there is no apparent and statistically significant difference in price changes in the countries which are about to be treated relative to the control group. This is important since the implicit assumption allowing us to interpret our results as causal is that prices in the treated and control group follow a similar trend in the absence of a discovery.


In case of the of tradable goods we do not observe any significant divergence in prices following a discovery. Thus, we conclude that consistent with standard economic theory, prices of tradable goods remain unaffected by country-specific shocks. On the other hand, the third chart shows that discoveries positively affect the non-tradable goods component of the real exchange rate.

Properties like stocks or financial assets, on the other hand, are kept with the hope of appreciating. In general fashion, electronics and other physical items lose value over time. Let’s say you spent $1,000 to purchase 50 shares of a new startup, Acme Electricity, at $20 per share. If the stock price increases to $25 per share, your initial 50 shares are now worth $1,250.

Learn about the effects of both strong and weak rates and how currency changes can impact both purchasing power and standard of living. One example is the EUR/USD exchange rate, which is the number of US dollars that can be bought with one Euro. The different types of money that are used among various countries are known as currencies.

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